Literature Database Entry


Dominik S. Buse, "Towards Holistic Real-time Simulation of Cooperative Vehicles," PhD Thesis, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), TU Berlin (TUB), May 2023. (Advisor: Falko Dressler; Referees: Falko Dressler, Christoph Sommer, Thomas Engel and James Gross)


Wireless networking technology can enable future cars to cooperate through Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication, increasing safety, comfort, and efficiency. This heralds a paradigm shift: from isolated entities, primarily interacting through their drivers, to networked elements of smart cities. But this paradigm shift requires new ways to develop and test such interconnected systems. Simulation tools of different domains need to be integrated to provide such a holistic simulation environment. But currently there is a gap between the highly-detailed, real-time testbeds like Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) and the large-scale, event-based network simulators for V2X. Our goal is to bridge this gap and combine tools of both domains into a co-simulation. We want to ensure real-time computation of V2X models for the inclusion of physical components or human users. And we aim to push the limits of wireless simulation on modern multi-core processors to enable running larger scenarios in real-time. We present our contributions in three parts: First, we introduce the Ego-Vehicle Interface (EVI), to bridge the gap between simulation tools of different domains into a layered co-simulation. The EVI coordinates the co-simulation and ensures that non-real-time simulators provide results far enough ahead of time for real-time components to run uninterrupted. This enables the combination of real-time systems, such as HIL setups, with large-scale traffic and event-based wireless simulation for V2X applications. Second, we investigate how V2X simulation can be ensured to run within these real-time bounds when focusing on an ego vehicle. By identifying and dynamically selecting the relevant set of neighboring vehicles, we demonstrate how to reduce the simulation to indispensable elements and limit compute time. And through simulation studies we explore the limits of the scale current hardware can process in real-time. Third, we expand these limits by improving the performance of V2X simulation through the utilization of modern multi-core processors with a new parallelization technique. As classical techniques do not perform well on the shared wireless channel, we instead focus on isolating and offloading expensive computation tasks like signal processing to background threads. In an in-depth case study using the state-of-the- art V2X simulator Veins, we describe how we identified potentials, implemented our parallelization concept, and thoroughly investigated the resulting parallel performance.

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Dominik S. Buse

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    author = {Buse, Dominik S.},
    title = {{Towards Holistic Real-time Simulation of Cooperative Vehicles}},
    advisor = {Dressler, Falko},
    institution = {School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS)},
    location = {Berlin, Germany},
    month = {5},
    referee = {Dressler, Falko and Sommer, Christoph and Engel, Thomas and Gross, James},
    school = {TU Berlin (TUB)},
    type = {PhD Thesis},
    year = {2023},

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